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THE EXAMINATIONS      •                     33

upper lip which revealed his gums when he laughed. He was not
particularly handsome to look at, but to meet this dean of letters and
receive his favour was the dream of all aspiring scholars. Ouyang Shiu
had won the love of the literati because he had always regarded it as
his duty to discover and encourage young talent. He received Su Shim
cordially, and through him Su senior was invited to privy councillor
Han Chi's home and introduced to the high-ranking officials. But
with his aloof and somewhat self-important manner, Su Shim failed
to make a good impression on the government leaders.

The young brothers spent their time looking at the gay streets, eat-
ing at the famous restaurants, and standing in the cold watching 'with
great admiration the renowned ministers passing by in their carriages.
The Sung dynasty had four capitals, of which Kaifeng, in modern
Honan, was the chief. Kaifeng, then called the Eastern capital ("Tung-
king!*, which in Japanese would be pronounced "Tokyo") consisted
of an outer city, thirteen miles in circumference, and an inner city
seven miles in circumference. The city had twelve gates, provided
with double and triple traps against enemies, and on top of the city
wall "horse heads" resembling gun emplacements were constructed
at regular intervals, As the capital was situated on a low-lying plain
without strategic protection, save that on the north it was protected
by the long stretch of some two hundred miles of the Yellow River,
along which the modern Lunghai Railway now runs, a well-thought-
' out plan of military defence had been devised.

On the west at Loyang, about a hundred and thirty miles away, was
the Western Capital, which was established as a bulwark guarding
the approach from the north-west through the strategic Tungkuan
Pass. On the east, at Shangchiu, some eighty miles away, was estat>
lished another military anchor, the Southern Capital. There was no
fear of invasion from the south. On the other hand, during the first
half of the tenth century, barbarian tribes from the north had invaded
China. There was a war lord then who had set up a separate govern-
ment and was able to defy the rest of China by pledging allegiance to
a strong dictatorial foreign power lying in the direction of Mongolia.
Shih Chingtang became the son of the Siberian emperpr, though he
declared that he loved China and was concerned for the peace and
welfare of the people. He called himself the "Sonny Emperor", while
he addressed the Siberian as "Daddy Emperor". While he lived and
broke up China's unity, he won the plaudits of foreigners. Particular
care, therefore, was taken to prevent a repetition of such a separatist
regime, because, whether in ancient or in modern China, there are
always enough "patriots" willing to serve as puppets of a foreign
government in the name of tfee common people oŁ China so long as
they can keep themselves in power. The fact that the "son" of a foreign